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News ::
NON-LETHAL USE OF FORCE - Riot Control from the U.S. Navy
14 Apr 2002
This isn't breaking news, per se, but it is extremely important and should be passed around.
This isn't breaking news, per se, but it is extremely important and should be passed around.

This is pulled from the Congressional Record for the U.S. Senate on March 20, 2001. I can't figure out which Senator is speaking, however it's the topic matter that it's imporant.

http://thomas.loc.gov/cgi-bin/query/D?r107:12:./temp/~r107NmLfCL::

DIRECTED ENERGY AND NON-LETHAL USE OF FORCE -- (Senate - March 20, 2001)

Mr. DOMENICI. Mr. President, I rise today to discuss a serious and effective use of new technologies in our military operations. While I will focus on a specific directed energy technology, the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program Office is involved in many other research areas that provide innovative solutions to our military men and women in their daily missions.

Recently, the Marines unveiled a device known as Active Denial Technology, ADT. This is a non-lethal weapons system based on a microwave source. This device, mounted on a humvee or other mobile platform, could serve as a riot control method in our peacekeeping operations or in other situations involving civilians. This project and technology was kept classified until very recently.

The Pentagon noted that further testing, both on humans and, evidently, goats will be done to ensure that it truly is a non-lethal method of crowd control or a means to disperse potentially hostile mobs. The notion that the Pentagon is using ``microwaves'' on humans, and especially on animals, has inflamed some human and animal rights groups. Among others it has simply sparked fear that a new weapon exists that will fry people.

This is not the case. And, unfortunately, few of the media reports offer sufficient detail or comparisons to clarify the value of such a system or put its use in perspective. While ADT is ``tunable,'' the energy cannot be ``tuned up'' to a level that would immediately cause permanent damage to human subjects.

The technology does not cause injury due to the low energy levels used. ADT does cause heat-induced pain that is nearly identical to briefly touching a lightbulb that has been on for a while. However, unlike a hot lightbulb, the energy propagated at this level does not cause rapid burning. Within a few seconds the pain induced by this energy beam is intended to cause the subject to run away rather than to continue to experience pain.

Such technologies have never before been used in a military or peacekeeping endeavor. Therefore, there is naturally suspicion or fear of the unknown and usually the worst is imagined. I believe this is unwarranted, especially when one considers the currently available options in these types of military situations.
Think of 1993 in Somalia. The U.S. lost 18 soldiers and somewhere between 500 and 1,000 Somalis were killed on the streets of Mogadishu. The Somalis used children as human shields, and our military was forced to fire on angry crowds of civilians, some civilians having automatic rifles and grenades.

Peacekeeping operations are not void of lethal threats. Oftentimes our military is confronted with armed civilians or situations where unarmed, defenseless civilians are intermixed and indistinguishable from persons possessing lethal means.

Regardless of the new Administration's approach to involvement of the U.S. military in non-traditional operations, I believe these types of missions will continue to be a staple of our military's daily operations for a long time to come. Further, these missions often involve situations that render U.S. soldiers vulnerable or threaten the lives of innocent civilians.

I believe that the applications of directed energy technologies in these and other operations can provide a more humane and militarily effective approach. Active denial technology is merely one device on a list of research and development endeavors currently underway by the Pentagon's Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Program.

I would encourage my colleagues to get briefed on the mission and projects in the Non-Lethal Weapons Program. Further, I believe that the tunability of microwave and laser technologies will offer a palette of readily available options to address operational needs in both traditional and non-traditional military operations, and I fully support further funding of research in this area.


********
http://www.de.afrl.af.mil/factsheets/activedenial.html

ACTIVE DENIAL TECHNOLOGY
Directed Energy Non-Lethal Demonstration

Photograph of the demonstration hardware
Active Denial Technology is a breakthrough non-lethal technology that uses millimeter-wave electromagnetic energy to stop, deter and turn back an advancing adversary from relatively long range. It is expected to save countless lives by providing a way to stop individuals without causing injury, before a deadly confrontation develops.
The technology was developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Department of Defense's Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate. Approximately $40 million has been spent on this technology over the past ten years.

This non-lethal technology was developed in response to Department of Defense needs for field commanders to have options short of the use of deadly force. Non-lethal technologies can be used for protection of Defense resources, peacekeeping, humanitarian missions and other situations in which the use of lethal force is undesirable.

How does it work?

Active Denial Technology uses a transmitter to send a narrow beam of energy towards an identified subject. Traveling at the speed of light, the energy reaches the subject and penetrates less than 1/64 of an inch into the skin, quickly heating up the skin's surface. Within seconds, an individual feels an intense heating sensation that stops when the transmitter is shut off or when the individual moves out of the beam.

Despite the sensation, the technology does not cause injury because of the low energy levels used. It exploits a natural defense mechanism that helps to protect the human body from damage. The heat-induced sensation caused by this technology, is nearly identical to the sensation experienced by briefly touching an ordinary light bulb that has been left on for a while. Unlike a light bulb, however, active denial technology will not cause rapid burning, because of the shallow penetration of the beam and the low levels of energy used. The transmitter needs only to be on for a few seconds to cause the sensation.

Testing

Humans and animals are being used in the test program. All testing is being conducted with strict observance of the procedures, laws and regulations governing animal and human experimentation. The tests have been reviewed and approved by a formal Institutional Review Board with oversight from the Air Force Surgeon General's Office. The testing is being conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Human Effectiveness Directorate.

Military and civilian employees have volunteered for these tests. Prior to participating in the program, all volunteers are fully informed of the purpose and nature of the tests and of any reasonably foreseeable risks or discomforts expected from the research. Other than minor skin tenderness due to repeated exposure to the beam, there are no lasting effects. An institutional review board has determined that the risk level is minimal. No pay is received for participation, and volunteers may withdraw at any time with no negative personal or professional ramifications. Many of the project scientists are volunteers for the study. These tests, which are being conducted at Kirtland Air Force Base south of Albuquerque, New Mexico, employ more realistic military field conditions, following several years of successful and safe laboratory testing. These field tests are the first to expose an entire test subject to the energy beam.

These tests will demonstrate the technology, gather additional data on effects in realistic conditions, and allow the military benefits to be assessed.

Operational System

Although this testing is expected to continue into the summer, officials have begun examining appropriate platforms on which to deploy the technology. Currently, planning is underway for a vehicle-mounted version. Future versions might also be used onboard planes and ships. The vehicle-mounted version will be designed to be packaged on a vehicle such as a High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV, more commonly referred to as a Humvee).

This technology and its proposed use in an operational system have been given a preliminary weapons legal review as required by Department of Defense Directive 3000.3 "Policy for Non-Lethal Weapons," and the United States' treaty - obligations. This preliminary review found that further research, development, and testing of this technology is permissible. As required by law, a final, comprehensive legal review will be completed prior to entering the acquisition cycle.



The Vehicle-Mounted Active Denial System concept
Organizations involved

Two primary organizations are executing this program: the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate at Quantico Marine Corps Base, Virginia, and the Air Force Research Laboratory, headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The Air Force Research Laboratory is developing the technology with funding from both the Air Force and the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate.

From the Air Force Research Laboratory, two directorates are involved: the Directed Energy Directorate at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, and the Human Effectiveness Directorate at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas. The former works technology development and testing; the latter is in charge of biological effects research.

There are three primary contractors: Raytheon AET in Rancho Cucamonga, California, is the systems integrator, CPI (Communications and Power Industries) in Palo Alto, California, is the source developer, and Veridian Engineering in San Antonio, Texas, is performing biological effects research.

Other organizations and agencies that are involved in the this project include the Air Force Force Protection Battlelab at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas; the Marine Warfighting Laboratory at Quantico, Virginia; the Air Force Special Operations Command at Hurlburt Field, Florida; and the U.S. Special Operations Command at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida.

The Air Force's Electronic Systems Center at Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts, will manage acquisition of the Vehicle-Mounted Active Denial System based on this technology.


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Air Force Research Laboratory
Current as of March 2001

*************
And for the main CORPORATE actor in all of this:

http://www.ensil.com/Database/DB-Defense/DDef-Active%20Denial%20Technolo

ACTIVE DENIAL TECHNOLOGY


--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Active Denial Technology is a breakthrough non-lethal technology that uses millimeter-wave electromagnetic energy to stop, deter and turn back an advancing adversary from relatively long range. It is expected to save countless lives by providing a way to stop individuals without causing injury, before a deadly confrontation develops.

The technology was developed by the Air Force Research Laboratory and the Department of Defense's Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate. Approximately $40 million has been spent on this technology over the past ten years.

This non-lethal technology was developed in response to Department of Defense needs for field commanders to have options short of the use of deadly force. Non-lethal technologies can be used for protection of Defense resources, peacekeeping, humanitarian missions and other situations in which the use of lethal force is undesirable.

How does it work?
Active Denial Technology uses a transmitter to send a narrow beam of energy towards an identified subject. Traveling at the speed of light, the energy reaches the subject and penetrates less than 1/64 of an inch into the skin, quickly heating up the skin's surface. Within seconds, an individual feels an intense heating sensation that stops when the transmitter is shut off or when the individual moves out of the beam.

Despite the sensation, the technology does not cause injury because of the low energy levels used. It exploits a natural defense mechanism that helps to protect the human body from damage. The heat-induced sensation caused by this technology, is nearly identical to the sensation experienced by briefly touching an ordinary light bulb that has been left on for a while. Unlike a light bulb, however, active denial technology will not cause rapid burning, because of the shallow penetration of the beam and the low levels of energy used. The transmitter needs only to be on for a few seconds to cause the sensation.

Testing
Humans and animals are being used in the test program. All testing is being conducted with strict observance of the procedures, laws and regulations governing animal and human experimentation. The tests have been reviewed and approved by a formal Institutional Review Board with oversight from the Air Force Surgeon General's Office. The testing is being conducted by the Air Force Research Laboratory's Human Effectiveness Directorate.

Military and civilian employees have volunteered for these tests. Prior to participating in the program, all volunteers are fully informed of the purpose and nature of the tests and of any reasonably foreseeable risks or discomforts expected from the research. Other than minor skin tenderness due to repeated exposure to the beam, there are no lasting effects. An institutional review board has determined that the risk level is minimal. No pay is received for participation, and volunteers may withdraw at any time with no negative personal or professional ramifications. Many of the project scientists are volunteers for the study. These tests, which are being conducted at Kirtland Air Force Base south of Albuquerque, New Mexico, employ more realistic military field conditions, following several years of successful and safe laboratory testing. These field tests are the first to expose an entire test subject to the energy beam.

These tests will demonstrate the technology, gather additional data on effects in realistic conditions, and allow the military benefits to be assessed.

Operational System
Although this testing is expected to continue into the summer, officials have begun examining appropriate platforms on which to deploy the technology. Currently, planning is underway for a vehicle-mounted version. Future versions might also be used onboard planes and ships. The vehicle-mounted version will be designed to be packaged on a vehicle such as a High Mobility Multi-purpose Wheeled Vehicle (HMMWV, more commonly referred to as a Humvee).

This technology and its proposed use in an operational system have been given a preliminary weapons legal review as required by Department of Defense Directive 3000.3 "Policy for Non-Lethal Weapons," and the United States' treaty - obligations. This preliminary review found that further research, development, and testing of this technology is permissible. As required by law, a final, comprehensive legal review will be completed prior to entering the acquisition cycle.

Organizations involved
Two primary organizations are executing this program: the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate at Quantico Marine Corps Base, Virginia, and the Air Force Research Laboratory, headquartered at Wright-Patterson Air Force Base, Ohio. The Air Force Research Laboratory is developing the technology with funding from both the Air Force and the Joint Non-Lethal Weapons Directorate.

From the Air Force Research Laboratory, two directorates are involved: the Directed Energy Directorate at Kirtland Air Force Base, New Mexico, and the Human Effectiveness Directorate at Brooks Air Force Base, Texas. The former works technology development and testing; the latter is in charge of biological effects research.

There are three primary contractors: Raytheon AET in Rancho Cucamonga, California, is the systems integrator, CPI (Communications and Power Industries) in Palo Alto, California, is the source developer, and Veridian Engineering in San Antonio, Texas, is performing biological effects research.

Other organizations and agencies that are involved in the this project include the Air Force Force Protection Battlelab at Lackland Air Force Base, Texas; the Marine Warfighting Laboratory at Quantico, Virginia; the Air Force Special Operations Command at Hurlburt Field, Florida; and the U.S. Special Operations Command at MacDill Air Force Base, Florida.

The Air Force's Electronic Systems Center at Hanscom Air Force Base, Massachusetts, will manage acquisition of the Vehicle-Mounted Active Denial System based on this technology.

Air Force Research Laboratory

************
this may be useful:
http://www.howstuffworks.com/pain-beam2.htm

How Military Pain Beams Will Work (many links here, lots of info.)
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